Markdown Cells

Markdown cells are used for writing rich text. The syntax is based on GitHub Flavored Markdown, which means you can include headers, links, lists, italics, and bold text among other things. These cells are ideal for providing explanations, guidelines, or notes to accompany your code and data.

This page provides a comprehensive guide to the syntax supported in Markdown cells.

Text Formatting

  • Bold: **bold text** or __bold text__
  • Italic: *italic text* or _italic text_
  • Bold and Italic: ***Bold and Italic*** or ___Bold and Italic___
  • Strikethrough: ~~Scratch this~~


  • # Header 1
  • ## Header 2
  • ### Header 3
  • #### Header 4
  • ##### Header 5
  • ###### Header 6

Please note that there needs to be space between the # and the title.


Ordered List:

1. Item 1
2. Item 2

Unordered List:

- Item 1
- Item 2
  • Automatic Links:
  • Standard Links: [click me](
  • Reference-Style Links: [a reference][id] and define [id]:


It is possible to insert and display images uploaded to Polypheny notebooks:


Code and Syntax Highlighting

  • Inline Code: `code`
  • Code Block:
    print("Hello, World!")


> This is a blockquote

Horizontal Lines

Horizontal lines serve as a useful visual element to separate different sections or topics within your Notebook. They can help improve the readability and organization of your content.


Mathematical Expressions Using Latex

Mathematical expressions are a crucial part of scientific computing and data analysis. Markdown cells allow you to include mathematical expressions in your Markdown cells using Latex, a typesetting system commonly used for mathematics, science, and engineering documentation.

Inline Math Expressions

To include inline math expressions, wrap your Latex code between single dollar signs $.


The Pythagorean Theorem states that $\( A^2 + B^2 = C^2 \)$.

Commonly Used Symbols and Operators

Here are some commonly used Latex symbols and operators you might find useful:

  • Summation: \sum_{i=1}^{n} i
  • Integration: \int_{a}^{b} x dx
  • Fraction: \frac{a}{b}
  • Square Root: \sqrt{a}
  • Greek Letters: \alpha, \beta, \gamma, \delta, \theta, \lambda, \pi, \omega


Currently, Jupyter Notebook Markdown cells only support inline math equations using single dollar signs $. Using double dollar signs $$ or other methods for display mode equations are not supported and may lead to rendering errors.


If your Latex code is not rendering properly, here are some things to check:

  • Ensure that you’ve enclosed the Latex code within single dollar signs $.
  • Make sure there are no spaces between the dollar signs and the Latex code.
  • Verify that your Latex syntax is correct.

Escape Characters

Use backslash \ to escape special characters, for example, \\# Not a header.

When you need to write a literal $-sign, you can use $\\$$.

Line Breaks

To force a line break, use two or more empty spaces at the end of a line.

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